Lectures

Why study this course?
In the not too distant past, all electronics well analog. Over the past couple decades, however, analog circuitry has given way to the more verstile and easy to design digital electronic. The rise of digital electronics has many pundits predicting a sudden death of analog electronics. Furtunately, as this lecture will show, analog electronics is here to stay.
[slides] [handout]

Introduction to electrical signal?
Signal contain information about a variety of things and activities in our physical world. This lecture introduces how and why electrical signals needs processing before they can be used, review signal representation and introduces how analog signals are converted into digital signals.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 1.11.3 (pages 616)
 Understand examples 1.1 on page 7
 Do exercises 1.1, 1.5, 1.6, 1.14 on page 46
 Read the wikipedia article on signals
 Read the wikipedia article on data acquisition

Signal amplification
This lecture introduces the most fundamental signalprocessing function, one that is employed in some form in almost every electronic system, namely, signal amplification.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 1.4
 Read the summary on page 44
 Understand examples 1.2 on page 20
 Understand examples 1.3 on page 25
 Do exercises 1.39 and 1.40, on page 50
 Read the wikipedia article on amplifiers

Circuit models for amplifiers
Amplifier circuit vary in complexity, some with dozens of discrete components. In order to be able to apply the resulting amplifier circuit as a building block in a system, one must be able to characterize, or model, its terminal behavior. This lecturer teaches amplifier models that can be applied irrespective of the complexity of the internal circuit of the amplifier. The values of the model parameters can be found either by analyzing the amplifier circuit or by performing measurements at the amplifier terminals.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 1.5
 Read the summary on page 44
 Understand examples 1.2 on page 20
 Understand examples 1.3 on page 25
 Do exercises 1.43 and 1.44, on page 50

Ideal diode
The simplest and most fundamental nonlinear circuit element is the diode. Just like a resistor, the diode has two terminals; but unlike the resistor, which has a linear (straightline) relationship between the current flowing through it and the voltage appearing across it, the diode has a nonlinear i–v characteristic. This lecture is concerned with the study of diodes. In order to understand the essence of the diode function, we begin with a fictitious element, the ideal diode
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested textbook readings:
 Ideal Diode and Characteristics of Ideal Diode
 Read section 4.1 on pages 175 184
 Do and understand example 4.2 on page 181
 Do exercises 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 on page 179
 Do exercises 4.4 and 4.5 and 4.3 on page 183

Terminal Characteristics of Junction Diodes
The most common implementation of the diode utilizes a pn junction. A pn junction can conduct substantial current in the forward direction and almost no current in the reverse direction. In this section we will study the i–v characteristic of the pn junction diode in detail in order to prepare ourselves for diode circuit applications.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested textbook readings:
 Section 4.2 on pages 184190
 Example 4.3 on page 187
 Real Diode Characteristics

Diode models
The iterative diode circuit method we have seen so far is precise but timeconsuming. Nevertheless, there are situations in which the effort and time required are still greater than can be justified. This lecture shows quick analysis methods that designers can use in order to evaluate various possibilities before deciding on a suitable diode circuit design.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested textbook readings:
 Section 4.3 on pages 193 195
 Algebraic iterative solution

The smallsignal model of a diode
A smallsignal model is an AC equivalent circuit in which the nonlinear circuit elements are replaced by linear elements whose values are given by the firstorder linear approximation of their characteristic curve near the bias point. The smallsignal model uses a Maclaurin series expansion around a specific operating point. Using a smallsignal model helps you understand more about your circuits, but it fails when the input signal gets too large
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested textbook readings:
 Section 4.3.7 on page 195200
 Example Example 4.5 on page 198}
 Smallsignal model
 Smallsignal modelling

Special diode types
In this lecture, we discuss briefly some important special types of diodes.
[slides] [handouts] [notes]
Suggested textbook readings:
 Section 4.7 on page 227229
 Zener diode
 Voltage regulator
 Photodiode
 Light emiting diode
 Schottky diode

Rectifier circuits
One of the most important applications of diodes is in the design of rectifier circuits. A diode rectifier forms an essential building block of the dc power supplies required to power electronic equipment. In this lecture, we talk about application of the diode in the design of rectifier circuits, which convert ac voltages to dc as needed for powering electronic equipment.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested textbook readings:
 Section 4.4 on page 207219 (skip section 4.5.5)
 Rectifiers
 Half wave rectifier
 Half Wave Rectifier With filter
 Full wave rectifier
 Full wave rectifier with filter
 Bridge rectifier
 Bridge rectifier with filter

MOSFET structure
In this lecture, you learn the physical structure of the MOS transistor and how it works. The lecture also explains how the voltage between two terminals of the transistor controls the current that flows through the third terminal, and gives the equations that describe these current–voltage characteristics.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 5.1 on pages 248264
 Understand Figure 5.1 on page 249
 Understand example 5.1 on page 260
 Do exercises 5.2 and D5.3 on page 261

MOSFET IV charactersitics?
This lecture explains the current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) of a MOSFET as a function of drain voltage with overvoltage (VGS − Vth) as a parameter
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 5.2 on pages 264276
 Understand exercise 5.2 on page 269

Finite output resistance in saturation
In previous lectures, we assume that in saturation, the drain current is independent of vDS. In reality, the drift current increases, and the drain current increases with increasing vDS
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 5.2.4 on page 271
 Channel lenght modulation

MOSFET Circuits at DC
The lecture consider circuits in which only dc voltages and currents are of concern. Specifically, it presents a series steps and examples of how to analyse and design MOSFET circuits at dc
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 5.3 on pages 276288
 Understand example 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8

BJT structure and operations
This lecture introduces the Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), their physical structure and how they work. It also discusses how the voltage between two terminals of the transistor controls the current that flows through the third terminal, and the equations that describe these current–voltage characteristics.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 6.1 and 6.2
 Understand examples 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3

BJT Circuits at DC
In this lecture, you will learn how to analyze and design circuits that contain bipolar transistors, resistors, and dc sources. The lecture also introduces DC analysis of a commonemitter amplifier circuit.
[slides] [handouts]
Suggested Readings:
 Read sections 6.3
 Understand Table 6.3 on the simplified models for the operation of the BJT in DC circuits
 Understand example 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7 and 6.8

Chap4 solved problems
These exercises are meant to help you cement your understanding of the lecture. I urge you to work through these questions and to make sure you understand them. Some questions cover material that was not covered in the lecture. In this case, please skip it.
[questions] [solutions]
Suggestion questions: Please do the following questions: 4.1, 4.5,4,6 4.7, and D4.10.

Chap5 Solved problems
These exercises are meant to help you cement your understanding of the lecture. I urge you to work through these questions and to make sure you understand them. Some questions cover material that was not covered in the lecture. In this case, please skip it.
[questions] [solutions]
Suggestion questions: Please do the following questions: 5.1, 5.2, D5.7, and 5.9

Chap6 Solved problems
These exercises are meant to help you cement your understanding of the lecture. I urge you to work through these questions and to make sure you understand them. Some questions cover material that was not covered in the lecture. In this case, please skip it.
[questions] [solutions]
Suggestion questions: Please do the following questions: 6.1, 6.2, and 6.7